Edited by John C. All Rights Reserved This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Foreword Although the worlds total fresh water supply is abundant, some areas have water usage demands that are heavily out of balance with natural replenishment. Conservation and efcient reuse of this precious and versatile resource are mandatory if such areas are to achieve proper development.

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Each time the hot water evaporates and cool water gets down to the basin for equipment cooling. The Fundamental Principles of Cooling Towers are to cool down the heated water of industrial equipment and processes. While it comes hot from the tower but goes back cold to the industrial process.

How Cooling Towers Work: Cooling towers are heat exchangers that intake hot water from the equipment process and expose it to air instantly to lower the water temperature. Some water evaporates during this process while the rest cools down that is circulated back to the cooling tower. Basically air conditioning condensers or other industrial procedures cause the water to be hot.

Pressure nozzles spray the hot water onto to film fills which slows the water flow down rate and gives it maximum water surface area for an effective air-water contact. This makes water cooling fast as it dribbles down the fills. To fasten cooling, an electric cooling fan pulls up heat from the hot water and releases it into the atmosphere thereby makes cooling fast.

Subsequently, the water is cooled that is pumped back to the equipment process. Most cooling tower mechanisms follow the principle of cooling water called evaporative cooling. This system pumps the water up to the top water distribution system where it is ejected through spray nozzles to the film fills that lay below the sprayers. The water slowly dribbles down these fills and simultaneously, hot air from the water is pulled away by a fan on top of the tower to evaporate in the atmosphere. Evaporation is an instant process that cools down water very fast.

Cooling Tower Applications: Although traditional HVAC heating and cooling systems are used for air conditioning in schools, hospital and buildings, Cooling towers being much larger in size are used in industrial processes to remove equipment heat like in petroleum refineries, plants, natural gas processing plants etc. Cooling Tower Types: Cooling towers have a specific design for particular industrial applications.

They have their benefits and shortcomingss too. To choose which fits your need, you must know the cooling tower types to know the best one for your industry.

Cooling tower types:.


Cooling Tower Fundamentals

In an oxidizing environment, such as that caused by the presence of an oxidizing microbiocide, a higher ORP will exist, while a lower ORP will exist in a more reducing environment. Microbiological Control Historically, microorganisms and macroorganisms have been controlled by adding an oxidizing biocide such as chlorine, bromine or ozone to effectively limit microbial activity. Oxidizing biocides are toxic to the organism growth by removing electrons from it, thus irreversibly oxidizing protein groups such that normal enzyme activity is lost, which results in the death of the cell. To ensure proper biological control, it is necessary both to measure the total number of organisms present in the system and to identify the types of organisms. Typical microbiological control programs are designed to reduce 99 percent or more of the organisms in the water by determining the concentration of oxidant required to both kill any existing microorganisms and also prevent any further growth from occurring.


Marley Cooling Tower Fundamentals



Fundamental Principles of Cooling Towers



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