MACCABEE BIBLE PDF

He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judah. The Maccabees destroyed pagan altars in the villages, circumcised boys and forced Jews into outlawry. After the victory, the Maccabees entered Jerusalem in triumph and ritually cleansed the Temple , reestablishing traditional Jewish worship there and installing Jonathan Maccabee as high priest. A large Seleucid army was sent to quash the revolt, but returned to Syria on the death of Antiochus IV.

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It describes the refusal of Mattathias to perform pagan religious rites, the ensuing Jewish revolt against Syrian hegemony , the political machinations whereby Demetrius II of Syria granted Judaea its independence, and the election of Simon as both high priest and secular ruler of the Judaean Jews. I Maccabees is the only contemporary source for the civil wars in Judaea, and the only surviving one for Judaean-Syrian relations after the reign of Antiochus IV.

The historical integrity of the book, which was compiled from official written sources, oral tradition, and eyewitness reporting, is attested to by the absence of almost all of the conventions of the Hellenistic rhetorical school of historiography and by its uncritical use by the later Jewish historian Josephus.

Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today The Second Book of the Maccabees. In general, its chronology coheres with that of I Maccabees. Its vocabulary and style indicate a Greek original. The Third Book of the Maccabees. It purports to be a historical account of the repression and miraculous salvation of Egyptian Jewry during the reign — bc of Ptolemy IV Philopator.

Ptolemy supposedly threatened the Jews with loss of citizenship after Palestinian Jews refused to permit him to enter the sanctuary of the Temple of Jerusalem. He relented after angels intervened on behalf of the Jews. The Fourth Book of the Maccabees. IV Maccabees has scanty historical information and belongs to the Maccabees series only because it deals with the beginning of the persecution of Jews by Antiochus IV Epiphanes.

It possibly was written during the reign of the emperor Caligula ad 37— Throughout the early Christian period, IV Maccabees was wrongly attributed to the 1st-century-ad Jewish historian Josephus. The Maccabees books were preserved only by the Christian church. Augustine wrote in The City of God that they were preserved for their accounts of the martyrs.

This suggests that in antiquity, IV Maccabees, dealing almost exclusively with martyrdom, may have been the most highly regarded. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.

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1 Maccabees

It describes the refusal of Mattathias to perform pagan religious rites, the ensuing Jewish revolt against Syrian hegemony , the political machinations whereby Demetrius II of Syria granted Judaea its independence, and the election of Simon as both high priest and secular ruler of the Judaean Jews. I Maccabees is the only contemporary source for the civil wars in Judaea, and the only surviving one for Judaean-Syrian relations after the reign of Antiochus IV. The historical integrity of the book, which was compiled from official written sources, oral tradition, and eyewitness reporting, is attested to by the absence of almost all of the conventions of the Hellenistic rhetorical school of historiography and by its uncritical use by the later Jewish historian Josephus. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.

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Why the Maccabees Aren’t in the Bible

The doctrine expressed in the book reflects traditional Jewish teaching, without later doctrines found, for example, in 2 Maccabees. The First Book of Maccabees also gives a list of Jewish colonies scattered elsewhere through the Mediterranean at the time. He then imposes a tax and establishes a fortress in Jerusalem. Antiochus then tries to suppress public observance of Jewish laws, in an attempt to secure control over the Jews. In BC, he desecrates the Temple by setting up an " abomination of desolation " that is, establishing rites of pagan observance in the Temple, or sacrificing an unclean animal on the altar in the Holy of Holies. Antiochus forbids both circumcision and possession of Jewish scriptures on pain of death.

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The Books of the Maccabees

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