During the summer semester of , Fromm studied at the University of Heidelberg , where he began studying sociology under Alfred Weber brother of the better known sociologist Max Weber , psychiatrist-philosopher Karl Jaspers , and Heinrich Rickert. Fromm received his PhD in sociology from Heidelberg in They married in , but separated shortly after and divorced in He began his own clinical practice in
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Sleep and Dreaming Erich Fromm was a German social psychologist and psychoanalyst who was associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory. He was known for developing the concept that freedom was a fundamental part of human nature and for challenging the theories of Sigmund Freud. Fromm was an only child born to Orthodox Jewish parents in Frankfurt on March 23, He would later describe his family as "highly neurotic.
He began looking for answers to his questions in the writings of thinkers including Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx. He went on to study sociology at the University of Heidelberg, earning his doctorate in under the supervision of Alfred Weber. In , he began studying psychoanalysis at the University of Frankfurt before moving to the Berlin Institute of Psychoanalysis.
The marriage dissolved after four years. Fromm helped found the Frankfurt Psychoanalytic Institute, where he lectured from to Fromm remarried in , became a U. He began teaching at the National Autonomous University of Mexico in and continued to work there until he retired in He remarried again in and continued to teach in Mexico.
Fromm moved from Mexico City to Muralto, Switzerland in , where he lived until his death in While Freud had an early influence on him, Fromm later became part of a group known as the neo-Freudians which included Karen Horney and Carl Jung. Fromm believed that society and culture also played a significant role in individual human development. The most important product of his effort is his own personality. Fromm had a major influence on humanistic psychology. He believed life was a contradiction since humans are both part of nature and separate from it.
From this conflict arises basic existential needs, including relatedness, creativity, rootedness, identity, and a frame of orientation, according to Fromm. Of his own work, Fromm would later explain, "I wanted to understand the laws that govern the life of the individual man, and the laws of society — that is, of men in their social existence.
Beyond the Chains of Illusion : My Encounter with Marx and Freud
Beyond the Chains of Illusion
Biography of Social Psychologist Erich Fromm