EDMUND GETTIER JUSTIFIED TRUE BELIEF PDF

References and Further Reading 1. Introduction Gettier problems or cases arose as a challenge to our understanding of the nature of knowledge. Initially, that challenge appeared in an article by Edmund Gettier, published in Note that sometimes this general challenge is called the Gettier problem. What, then, is the nature of knowledge? And can we rigorously define what it is to know?

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Belief, to the JTB theorists, has propositional content. Gettier, perhaps unknowingly, capitalizes on this mistake. Gettier argued against that formulation by stating that if S is justified in believing P, infers Q from P, then S is justified in believing Q. In both Gettier cases, it is claimed that Q is true, S is purportedly justified in inferring and thus believing Q, but given the case specifics, no one would reasonably assert that S knows Q.

Well, according to Gettier and completely unbeknownst to S, the other guy also had ten coins in his pocket, and got the job. So, in the first case, "the man" is equivalent to S, not the other guy.

Gettier is unjustified in implying that "the man" is equivalent to Smith. Truth conditions matter. Hence, the first case is no problem for JTB, but is a problem for the notion of entailment if Gettier followed all of those rules. The second case involves a disjunction. That is, Q is a disjunction derived from P. P is a justified belief. Being justified in believing that Q a disjunction is true, requires that S consider the truth conditions for Q. S can know that if either P or Q is true, then so too is P or Q.

S can validly infer P or Q from a belief that P, and already knowing that if P is true then so too is P or Q , which is exactly what S does in the second case. Gettier leaves out the belief content that matters most.

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Gettier Problems

Epistemic closure and skeptical arguments[ edit ] The epistemic closure principle typically takes the form of a modus ponens argument: S knows p. S knows that p entails q. Therefore, S knows q. This epistemic closure principle is central to many versions of skeptical arguments.

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Epistemic closure

Belief, to the JTB theorists, has propositional content. Gettier, perhaps unknowingly, capitalizes on this mistake. Gettier argued against that formulation by stating that if S is justified in believing P, infers Q from P, then S is justified in believing Q. In both Gettier cases, it is claimed that Q is true, S is purportedly justified in inferring and thus believing Q, but given the case specifics, no one would reasonably assert that S knows Q.

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The Gettier Problem & the Definition of Knowledge

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