In this chapter the writer gives us basics and description of discourse analysis and dilates upon different accounts of linguists from Zellig Harris and Fairclough to Mills. Zellig, had two main interests i. The relation between language and context has been comprehensively presented for the readers as a food for thought 1. What is Discourse Analysis Discourse Analysis is the investigation of knowledge about language beyond the word, clause, phrase and sentence levels.
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In this chapter the writer gives us basics and description of discourse analysis and dilates upon different accounts of linguists from Zellig Harris and Fairclough to Mills. Zellig, had two main interests i. The relation between language and context has been comprehensively presented for the readers as a food for thought 1.
What is Discourse Analysis Discourse Analysis is the investigation of knowledge about language beyond the word, clause, phrase and sentence levels. All of them are the basic building blocks of successful communication.
Relationship Between Language And Context The basic consideration of Discourse Analysis is relationship between language and the situations wherein it is produced. It analyzes and investigates both spoken and written interactions.
Discourse Analysis and Pragmatics This chapter will highlight pragmatics that is the prime consideration of the ways in which people mean more than what they say in spoken and written discourses. Paltridge discusses Discourse Analysis from pragmatic point of view.
The Discourse Structure Of Text Discourse Analysts are interested in how people knit into a structure what they intend to convey to others in a conversation or in a piece of writing. In US they are very short while in Japan they include weather and other details in greetings.
The cultural context remains the most important aspect that needs attention of analysts, researchers and critics. Paltridge maintains that though Hymes analyzed cultural point of view but he ignored social and cultural context in language occurs.
It revolves around the knowledge of speakers as to how to respond to different speech acts as faced during day to day situations.
Communicative competence consists of four components i. Discursive Competence Discursive competence is not only language related and text level knowledge but also includes complex factors beyond text which are required for useful communication. Discursive competence draws together the notion of textual competence generic competence and social competence.
Different Views of Discourse Analysis It is the analysis of functional language i. Paltridge has discussed different uses of discourse analysis i. The first view only concentrates on language features of text while the second one talks about the text in social and cultural settings. Paltridge has focused more on discourse analysis from the second point of view. Both of these aspects can hardly be ignored in a realistic discourse analysis. Discourse And Socially Situated Identities Similarly, whenever we speak or pen something down we construct our socially situated identities.
A speaker can construct multi identities in a single stretch of discourse. For example, when a speaker, in an interview, tells that his son goes to Chicago University, he establishes his identity of being a father and a husband. In the same very interview if he discloses it to the audience that he is a high ranking officer in the Army, he constructs his second identity of being an army office.
It includes the way we dress, the way we act and interact influences. Discourse And Performance Sometimes our discourse not only shows the intentions and identities, it actually performs the intended functions. Discourse And Intertextuality All text whether spoken or written, takes meanings from other texts and refers to other texts. So, this way they are in an intertextual relationship with other texts.
Casablanca movie in which different genre such as adventure patriotic war propaganda are mixed up. The differences are as under:- a. Grammatical Intricacy and Spoken Discourse Researchers have shown that speech as well as writing is grammatically complex and different from each other.
The written language is more complex grammatically compared to the spoken version of discourse b. Lexical Density in Spoken and Written Discourse Discourse analysts like Halliday maintain that written discourse is more lexically dense than the spoken form.
It used thicker and comparatively difficult lexicon to convey the meaning. Nominalization In Written And Spoken Discourse Nominalization refers to the process of forming nouns from other word class than nouns.
It occurs where actions and events are presented as nouns rather than verbs. In written discourse the process of nominalization takes place on higher level while in spoken discourse there is low level of nominalization.
Explicitness in writing and speech depends on the purpose of the text as well as listeners and readers. Contextualization In Spoken And Written Discourse Some of the spoken genre is decontextualized and some of the written genre is also decontextualized while some are not.
The spoken genre, such as academic lectures, is decontextualized. Repetition Hesitation and Redundancy in Spoken Discourse Spoken discourse being produced spontaneously and without any preplanning, contains abundant repetition hesitation and redundancy because it is produced in real time and it contains pauses and fillers. A Continuum Of Differences between Spoken and Written Discourse There are no binding rules of differentiating between spoken and written discourse as spoken and written styles may intermingle with each other in forms.
Further she talks about social and gender identities. Partridge argues that speakers have a linguistic repertoire from which they can make different choices in different situations. The notions of gender and identity are thoroughly discussed as important topics in the area of discourse and society.
Discourse Communities and Speech Communities Discourse community is a group of people who work or live together. Members of discourse community have shared goals, values and beliefs. These communities have shared goals, same vocabulary and similar living environments that elicit language.
The term refers to people who not only use the same language but also have the opportunity to interact with each other, from socio- linguistic point of view. However, Paltridge says that it is not only the language that defines speech community but also we need to keep in mind various factors like society, geography, culture, politics and ethnicity.
They use the term to avoid disclosing the fact that they have a girl friend or who their girl friend is. A group of speakers may appear to be very similar in social class membership but they differ in use of language as they interact in social networks. Discourse and Gender Earlier works have talked about discourse and gender in terms of biological category of sex but the present research talks in relation to the socially constructed category of gender.
Paltridge also agrees the later view. Then she talks of the two approaches namely Dominance Approach and the Difference or Cultural Approach. The Dominance approach maintains that there are clear differences in the use of language as a result of male dominance over the female.
The cultural approach believes that boys and girls live in different sub-cultures in the way that people from different social and ethnic backgrounds might be described as being part of different sub cultures. Resultantly boys and girls learn different ways of using the spoken discourse. It includes the notion of desire as we have discussed that gender is socially constructed but sexual desires are not constructed.
Discourse and Identity Paltridge talks about two views of language and identity. One view is variationist perspective and the other one is post structural perspective. The variation is perspective looks at the relationship between social variables in terms of variation in the use of linguistic variables. However, post structural perspective on language and identity focuses on this view that identity is constructed through discourse. Identity and Casual Conversation Through use of conversation people establish social identities as Eggins and Slade argue that people do not engage in casual conversations just to kill time but rather to negotiate social identities as well as clarify and extend interpersonal relations.
Identity and Written Academic Discourse Identity is even constructed in our academic writing as in spoken or other written discourse.
Discourse and Ideology. Texts are neither ideology free nor objective. A spoken or written genre is never created without an objective. There are a number of ways in which ideology might be extracted from a text. This may include tracing underlying ideology from linguistic features of a text unpacking ideological presupposition underlying the texts.
Central Idea of the Chapter. This section shows that both pragmatics and discourse analysis share an interest in the relationship between language and context and how language is used to perform different speech acts. The chapter begins by defining pragmatics i. Language, Context and Discourse. Use of Language in context is very important in discourse analysis. Same language carries different meaning in different context. So, what determines the meanings of discourse is the use of discourse in context.
However, there are other factors which also play very important role like physical, social contexts and the mental world and roles of people involved in the interactions.
Speech Acts and Discourse. Austin argued that there are three kinds of acts which occur with everything we say. These are locutionary act, the illocutionary act and perlocutionary act. The Co-operative Principle and discourse. Grice based his co-operative principle on four sub-principles. These are maxims of quality, quantity, relation and manner. Quality means, people should only say what they believe to be true and accurate without any addition to the meaning from them.
Quantity means that the message being conveyed by the discourse should be comprehensive and holistic without any loopholes and confusions in it. Relation refers to the fact that our discourse needs to be in harmony to the context and should have relevance to the surroundings. If not so, the entire message may not be communicated in its true letter and spirit. Flouting the Co-operative Principle. The co-operative principle helps the producers of discourse convey their information effectively.
This principle is followed to a great extent but the intentions behind the production of discourse do matter. For example, the principle of quality wants the producers of discourse to say what they want to be true. This violation of the co-operative principle is best done in the diplomatic circle of the world. Cross - Cultural Pragmatics and Discourse. In the global world of today the cross-cultural pragmatics is very important. When people say something, it carries different meanings in different culture.
This is called cross-cultural pragmatics.
Discourse analysis : an introduction
For the student, Paltridge is clear, comprehensive and - above all - lively and approachable. For the teacher, Paltridge provides unparalleled practical support: a perfectly-structured, semester-long curriculum, exercises, project topics, and teaching materials on the companion website. No-one could ask for more. A comprehensive contribution to the educational literature on discourse analysis, the book is equally appealing to beginners and experienced discourse analysts.
Discourse Analysis: An Introduction