She has co-authored two books on psychology and media engagement. Cynthia Vinney Updated June 30, Lawrence Kohlberg outlined one of the best-known theories addressing the development of morality in childhood. The theory includes three levels and six stages of moral thinking. Each level includes two stages.
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In each case, he presented a choice to be considered, for example, between the rights of some authority and the needs of some deserving individual who is being unfairly treated. Doctors said a new drug might save her. The drug had been discovered by a local chemist, and the Heinz tried desperately to buy some, but the chemist was charging ten times the money it cost to make the drug, and this was much more than the Heinz could afford.
Heinz could only raise half the money, even after help from family and friends. He explained to the chemist that his wife was dying and asked if he could have the drug cheaper or pay the rest of the money later. The chemist refused, saying that he had discovered the drug and was going to make money from it.
Kohlberg asked a series of questions such as: Kohlberg asked a series of questions such as: 1. Should Heinz have stolen the drug? Would it change anything if Heinz did not love his wife? What if the person dying was a stranger, would it make any difference?
Should the police arrest the chemist for murder if the woman died? By studying the answers from children of different ages to these questions, Kohlberg hoped to discover how moral reasoning changed as people grew older. The sample comprised 72 Chicago boys aged 10—16 years, 58 of whom were followed up at three-yearly intervals for 20 years Kohlberg, Each boy was given a 2-hour interview based on the ten dilemmas.
What Kohlberg was mainly interested in was not whether the boys judged the action right or wrong, but the reasons given for the decision. He found that these reasons tended to change as the children got older.
Kohlberg identified three distinct levels of moral reasoning: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Each level has two sub-stages. People can only pass through these levels in the order listed. Each new stage replaces the reasoning typical of the earlier stage. Not everyone achieves all the stages. Instead, our moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules.
Authority is outside the individual and reasoning is based on the physical consequences of actions. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. If a person is punished, they must have done wrong. Individualism and Exchange. At this stage, children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities.
Different individuals have different viewpoints. Level 2 - Conventional morality Level 2 - Conventional morality At the conventional level most adolescents and adults , we begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models. Authority is internalized but not questioned, and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs. Good Interpersonal Relationships.
Therefore, answers relate to the approval of others. Maintaining the Social Order. Level 3 - Post-conventional morality Level 3 - Post-conventional morality Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice. According to Kohlberg this level of moral reasoning is as far as most people get. That is to say, most people take their moral views from those around them and only a minority think through ethical principles for themselves.
Social Contract and Individual Rights. The issues are not always clear-cut. Universal Principles. People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law. The principles apply to everyone.
The person will be prepared to act to defend these principles even if it means going against the rest of society in the process and having to pay the consequences of disapproval and or imprisonment. Kohlberg doubted few people reached this stage.
The dilemmas are artificial i. For example, it is all very well in the Heinz dilemma asking subjects whether Heinz should steal the drug to save his wife. They have never been married, and never been placed in a situation remotely like the one in the story.
How should they know whether Heinz should steal the drug? Further, the gender bias issue raised by Gilligan is a reminded of the significant gender debate still present in psychology, which when ignored, can have a large impact on the results obtained through psychological research. The dilemmas are hypothetical i. Would subjects reason in the same way if they were placed in a real situation? People may respond very differently to real life situations that they find themselves in than they do with an artificial dilemma presented to them in the comfort of a research environment.
Poor research design The way in which Kohlberg carried out his research when constructing this theory may not have been the best way to test whether all children follow the same sequence of stage progression. His research was cross-sectional, meaning that he interviewed children of different ages to see what level of moral development they were at. A better way to see if all children follow the same order through the stages would have been to carry out longitudinal research on the same children.
Are there distinct stages of moral development? Kohlberg claims that there are, but the evidence does not always support this conclusion. For example, a person who justified a decision on the basis of principled reasoning in one situation post-conventional morality stage 5 or 6 would frequently fall back on conventional reasoning stage 3 or 4 with another story.
In practice, it seems that reasoning about right and wrong depends more upon the situation than upon general rules. What is more, individuals do not always progress through the stages and Rest found that one in fourteen actually slipped backward. The evidence for distinct stages of moral development looks very weak, and some would argue that behind the theory is a culturally biased belief in the superiourity of American values over those of other cultures and societies.
Does moral judgment match moral behavior? Kohlberg never claimed that there would be a one to one correspondence between thinking and acting what we say and what we do but he does suggest that the two are linked. However, Bee suggests that we also need to take account of: a habits that people have developed over time.
Overall Bee points out that moral behavior is only partly a question of moral reasoning. It is also to do with social factors.
Is justice the most fundamental moral principle? However, Gilligan suggests that the principle of caring for others is equally important. Furthermore, Kohlberg claims that the moral reasoning of males has been often in advance of that of females.
Gilligan p. He neglects the feminine voice of compassion, love, and non-violence, which is associated with the socialization of girls. Simply Psychology. Lifespan development. HarperCollins College Publishers. Colby, A. A longitudinal study of moral judgment.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Gilligan, C. Harvard Educational Review, 47 4 , Kohlberg, L. Dissertation, University of Chicago. The moral judgment of the child. Rest, J. Development in judging moral issues.
University of Minnesota Press. Rosen, B. Moral dilemmas and their treatment. In, Moral development, moral education, and Kohlberg. Munsey Ed. Birmingham, Alabama: Religious Education Press.
6 Etapas do desenvolvimento moral segundo Lawrence Kohlberg
Universal ethical principles Principled conscience The understanding gained in each stage is retained in later stages, but may be regarded by those in later stages as simplistic, lacking in sufficient attention to detail. Pre-conventional[ edit ] The pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especially common in children and animals, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning. Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. The pre-conventional level consists of the first and second stages of moral development and is solely concerned with the self in an egocentric manner.
A Teoria do Desenvolvimento Moral de Lawrence Kohlberg
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
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