Abstract Background The six organic solvent extracts of Artemisia nilagirica were screened for the potential antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens and clinically important standard reference bacterial strains. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of A. The phytochemical screening of extracts was carried out for major phytochemical derivatives in A. Results All the extracts showed inhibitory activity for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The phytochemical screening of extracts answered for the major derivative of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, phenol, quinines, tannins and terpenoids. Conclusion All the extracts showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains.
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Abstract Background The six organic solvent extracts of Artemisia nilagirica were screened for the potential antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens and clinically important standard reference bacterial strains. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of A. The phytochemical screening of extracts was carried out for major phytochemical derivatives in A. Results All the extracts showed inhibitory activity for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus.
The phytochemical screening of extracts answered for the major derivative of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, phenol, quinines, tannins and terpenoids. Conclusion All the extracts showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains.
Of all, methanol and hexane extracts showed high inhibition against clinical and phytopathogens, respectively.
The results also indicate the presence of major phytochemical derivatives in the A. Hence, the isolation and purification of therapeutic potential compounds from A.
Peer Review reports Background Artemisia is one of the diverse genera of Asteraceae family with many important medicinally valuable essential oils and secondary metabolites. Essential oils of Artemisia spp. Artemisia nilagirica Clarke pamp commonly called Indian wormwood, is widely found in the hilly areas of India.
Around 59 compounds were identified from essential oil of A. Various species of Artemisia have been characterized for their biological activities. It is considered to produce most medicinally important secondary metabolites [ 3 , 4 ]. Several interesting studies using Artemisia spp.
The qualitative determination of various secondary metabolites like flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and polysaccharides of Artemisia spp. Few considerable secondary metabolites were successfully isolated and used in food industry as an alternative to synthetic antimicrobials [ 12 , 13 ].
Furthermore, extracts of Artemisia spp. The determination of potential antimicrobial activity of Artemisia nilagirica extracts could be more informative for the future use in controlling phytopathogens and also in clinical treatment as natural antimicrobial agents. The organisms like Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus, Shigella and Staphylococcus species are implicated to cause severe infections in human, as they are found in multiple environmental habitats [ 18 , 19 ].
Erwinia spp. Furthermore, these phytopathogens cause disease in any plant tissue it invades [ 20 ]. In the present study, the antimicrobial potency of chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol, hexane, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of Artemisia nilagirica was investigated.
The antibacterial activity was determined by disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration MIC test. The preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out to identify the derivatives in the extracts.
Plant leaves were cleaned with deionized water and dried at shade for a week. Blotted leaves were grounded and filtered using four layers of gauss cloth. Solvent systems used for the extractions were chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol, hexane, methanol and petroleum ether. Soxhlet and flask extraction procedures were adapted for extraction. Ten grams of the powered samples were packed in muslin cloth and used for extraction by soxhlet apparatus at a temperature below the boiling temperature of each solvent.
A portion of the powdered plant samples was soaked in the conical flask containing solvent, wrapped with aluminum foil and placed in shaker for 48 hours at rpm. After 48 hours, the extracts were filtered using Whatman filter paper No: 1.
The extract was filtered using 0. Test microorganisms The 15 bacterial cultures of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains used for screening are: Erwinia sp.
Working cultures were prepared by inoculating a loopful of each test microorganism in 3 ml of nutrient broth NB from NA slants. The disk was completely saturated with the extract and allowed to dry.
Mueller Hinton MH agar plates were swabbed with test bacteria and six extract disks with one of the standard positive control disks ampicillin, streptomycin or gentamycin was placed on the MH agar plate. DMSO was taken as the negative control. The test was carried out in triplicates. After 18 - 24 hours, the MIC was determined and the percentage of growth inhibition was calculated by, T: Test: SC: Solvent control; PC: positive control Phytochemical screening To identify the phytochemical derivatives in the extracts, standard phytochemical screening was performed [ 24 , 25 ].
The test for hydrolysable tannins, phlobatannins, phenol, quinones and volatile oils were also carried out as in literature [ 26 — 28 ]. The extractions were carried out using chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol, hexane, methanol and petroleum ether solvents.
The ethanol and methanol extracts gave the high yield of 2. While, other extracts provide much low yield of 0. The antibacterial activity of the organic solvent extracts showed varying magnitudes of inhibition patterns with standard positive control depending on the susceptibility of the tested microorganism. Out of 15 bacterial strains tested, 12 showed inhibition activity to one or more extracts.
The mean inhibitory zone of six solvent extracts against 15 bacterial species is summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Antibacterial activity screening of A. On the other hand, ethanol and diethyl ether extracts showed high activity against C.
Also, the petroleum ether extracts showed mm zone of inhibition to C. Interestingly, hexane extract of A. Further, hexane extracts showed the significant inhibitory effect against Clavibacter michiganense 13 mm , Erwinia sp 13 mm , Pseudomonas syringae 12 mm and Xanthomonas campestris 14 mm. It is understandable that hexane extract is more potent showing a higher degree of antimicrobial activity to phytopathogens in comparison to other extracts. Also, the results of hexane extract against X.
In addition, moderate effects were seen in chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol and methanol extracts against all tested phytopathogens except petroleum ether which showed comparatively minimum area of inhibition. This possibly means that the compound responsible for the antibacterial activity was least in concentration.
Similar analysis of A. The hexane, methanol and petroleum ether extracts exhibited significant high inhibitory zones against P.
The chloroform and diethyl ether extracts showed maximum area zone of inhibition 10 mm for B. The ethanol extract exhibited 14 mm zone for E. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of methanol 12 mm , chloroform 13 mm and diethyl ether 14 mm extracts were found as effective for Y. Moderate activities were observed against S. Among the 11 clinical bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri were the most susceptible bacteria to all solvent extracts.
Surprisingly, no activity were observed against S. The MIC tests of A. In supportive to the susceptible test, A. Hence, we conclude that these organisms are resistant to A. By studying the presence of phytochemical in A. The phytochemical screening of extracts showed the presence of major derivatives and their results were summarized [Table 3 ].
The analysis showed the occurrence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol, quinines and terpenoids in all extracts. Tannins were present in ethanol, methanol and diethyl ether. Volatile oils were present in methanol, hexane and petroleum ether. Phlobatannins metabolites were found to be present in hexane and petroleum ether and absent in other extracts. Also, saponins and amino acid were present in ethanol and methanol extracts with carbohydrates particularly present in methanol extract.
Surprisingly, glycosides and hydrolysable tannins were absent in all the extracts. Table 3 Phytochemical screening of A. The phytopathogens test of petroleum ether extract showed low inhibition range 8 to 10 mm in comparison to other extracts 10 to 14 mm. In conjugation with phytochemical screening of all the extracts with petroleum ether, showed the variations in abundance in alkaloids derivates. Hence, it is suggested that reduction of alkaloid abundance in petroleum ether may be the cause of decreased activity in phytopathogens.
Supportive to our finding, previous studies indicate the effective role of alkaloid against phytopathogens [ 30 — 32 ]. The MIC analyses of clinical pathogens showed an activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may be indicative of the presence of the broad spectrum antibiotic compounds. The methanol extracts showed high inhibition at the minimal concentration for most of the clinical pathogens in comparison to other extracts.
Also, the phytochemical screening of menthol extract showed the presence of most of the derivatives like flavonoids, terpenoids, phenol, amino acids, alkaloids and tannins. Furthermore, alkaloids [ 33 , 34 ], amino acids [ 35 ], flavonoids [ 36 — 38 ], phenols [ 39 ], tannins [ 40 — 42 ], terpenoids [ 43 ] of various plants extracts proven to be effective antimicrobials [ 44 ]. Our results are also in agreement with these studies suggesting the efficacy of methanol extract of A. Conclusion Extracts of A.
Hexane extract exhibited high inhibitory potency against phytopathogens and methanol extract showed maximum inhibition against clinical pathogens except S. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of effective biological compounds like alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and terpenoids.
These derivatives could be potential alternatives to the traditional chemical control of clinical pathogen and phytopathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, the development of natural antimicrobials will help to decrease the negative effects of synthetic drugs. Fractionation and characterization of these active compounds will be the future work to investigate. References 1. Indian J Exp Biol.
Artemisia pontica Roman wormwood Artemisia arborescens tree wormwood, or sheeba in Arabic is an aromatic herb indigenous to the Middle East used in tea, usually with mint. A few species are grown as ornamental plants , the fine-textured ones used for clipped bordering. All grow best in free-draining sandy soil, unfertilized, and in full sun. Artemisia stelleriana is known as Dusty Miller, but several other species bear that name, including Jacobaea maritima syn. Senecio cineraria , Silene coronaria syn. Lychnis coronaria , and Centaurea cineraria.
Leaves are shortly stalked or stalkless; leaf blade below densely gray arachnoid woolly, above gray or yellowish woolly or becoming hairless. Uppermost leaves pinnatipartite; leaflike bracts 3-lobed or entire. Flower-heads are stalkless or short-stalked, erect, borne in broadly conical, almost leafless panicle with obliquely spreading, up to 18 cm long branches. Florets are , yellowish, all fertile. Disk florets are , bisexual, basally glandular.
ABSTRACT: The phytochemicals of various parts of the plants mainly the secondary metabolites are well known for its high potential therapeutic values such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiplasmodial, antioxidant, insecticidal etc. In the present investigation an attempt was made to analyze the various phytochemicals present in Artemisia nilagirica Clarke Pamp which is wide spread and commonly grown for its religious importance and fragrance through GC-MS. Methanolic leaf extract of the A. The phytoconstituents of the target extract revealed high medicinal values in the pharmaceuticals industries. These compounds were separated by column chromatography for further authentication of the therapeutic values. The significant increase of plant derived materials attributed development of new drugs and re-establishment of old ones according to the demands of mankind 2, 3, various bioactive compounds are said to be efficient antibacterial, antiviral, fungicide, immunosuppressive, cytotoxic, algicidal etc 4, 5, 6.