Water Treatment[ edit ] Antimicrobial Peptides and Chitosan[ edit ] Naturally occurring chitin and certain peptides have been recognized for their antimicrobial properties in the past. Today, these materials are engineered into nanoparticles in order to produce low-cost disinfection applications. Natural peptides form nano-scale channels in the bacterial cell membranes, which causes osmotic collapse. Chitosan is a polymer obtained from chitin in arthropod shells, and has been used for its antibacterial properties for a while, but even more so since the polymer has been made into nanoparticles. Chitosan proves to be effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, however it is more effective against fungi and viruses than bacteria. The positively charged chitosan nanoparticles interact with the negatively charged cell membrane, which causes an increase in membrane permeability and eventually the intracellular components leak and rupture.

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Search Menu Abstract Objectives: Recently, bergamot oil was shown to be a potent antifungal agent in vitro against clinically important Candida species. In this study, the activities of bergamot natural essence and its furocoumarin-free and distilled extracts on dermatophytes such as Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton species were investigated.

The three isolates of T. Conclusions: Data from this study indicate that bergamot oil is active in vitro against several common species of dermatophytes, suggesting its potential use for topical treatment of dermatophytoses. MIC , broth microdilution , antifungal susceptibility Introduction Unlike other superficial fungal infections, the incidence of dermatophytoses, commonly known as ringworm or tinea, has increased considerably, 1 , 2 and this trend has paralleled the increased number of individuals with impaired immunity following treatment with cytotoxic drugs, broad-spectrum antimicrobials, or immunosuppressive agents.

Cases of infections due to griseofulvin-resistant isolates have been described, 4 as well as a high-level primary resistance to terbinafine displayed by Trichophyton rubrum isolates obtained sequentially from a single onychomycosis patient who failed oral terbinafine therapy.

Of note, some of these products are empirically used for prevention and treatment of mycoses. In our previous work, we investigated the antifungal properties of the bergamot natural essence and its furocoumarin-free and distilled extracts against vaginal isolates of several Candida species in vitro.

Accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the three compounds on dermatophytes by the use of in vitro susceptibility assays. Materials and methods Fungal isolates Ninety-two isolates belonging to seven species of dermatophytes were tested.

They were chosen from the culture collection of clinical isolates maintained at the Mycology Section of the Catholic University Medical Centre, and included 20 Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolates, 18 T. Isolates had originally been identified to the species level by standard procedures 15 and stored as water suspensions at room temperature. Rome, Italy. At this concentration, the detergent did not show any inhibitory effect on fungal growth data not shown. Serial 2-fold dilutions of each test compound, prepared in RPMI , were placed in well microtitre plates.

Growth and sterility control wells were included in each plate. Isolates were tested twice. For the two isolates tested with itraconazole as quality controls, MICs were within expected ranges for C. MICs ranged from 0. Among the species with fewer than 10 isolates, T. Griseofulvin and itraconazole gave MICs in the ranges of 0.

Table 1 In vitro activity of bergamot oils, itraconazole and griseofulvin against 92 isolates of dermatophytes, determined by the microdilution broth method.


Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA's Microbiology Laboratory



Antimicrobial surface



Antimicrobial activity


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