ANALECT OF CONFUCIUS PDF

Creation of the text[ edit ] A portrait of Confucius giving a lecture. The work is therefore titled Lunyu meaning "edited conversations" or "selected speeches" i. The Qing dynasty philologist Cui Shu argued on linguistic ground that the last five books were produced much later than the rest of the work. Arthur Waley speculated that Books 3—9 represent the earliest parts of the book. Bruce Brooks and A.

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Information about the Analects of Confucius. This article is about the Analects The Analects of Confucius The Analects are a collection of the teachings and thoughts of Confucius; they also contain fragments of dialogues between the great Chinese philosopher and his disciples. The name in English derived from the word "analect" which means a fragment or extract of literature, or a collection of teachings. In Chinese, the book is literally called "discussion on the words [of Confucius].

The Analects were probably written over a period of years. Started during the Spring and Autumn Period, the work of collection and organization of Confucian teachings was probably completed during the Warring States Period, although the precise date of publication of the complete work is unknown.

In China, the work has been by many attributed to Confucius himself, but the philological investigations to date do not allow to go back to a reliable source, partly because of the devastating book burning of BC by the First Emperor Qin Shi Huang. The chapters are grouped by themes of the Analects, but do not develop a structured discussion. The sequence of chapters seems entirely random, dealing with topics that are in no way connected.

Some central themes are repeated in various chapters, sometimes in the same wording and sometimes with slight variations. This has led some scholars to conclude that the book was not written by a single author, but is the collective work of several people. It is likely that the editors end of the Analects were probably the disciples of Confucius or of Zengzi, one of his most influential students.

At first there was no canonical version of the Analects. At the time of the Han Dynasty, there were three versions of the Analects: those of Lu, those of Qi, as well as the ancient texts of the Analects. The Qi and Lu versions were very similar, but the version included two additional chapters in addition to the twenty chapters three chapters common to the other versions.

The ancient texts divided the one chapter into two parts, and the remainder of the chapters and text were ordered differently than the other two more recent versions. The version of Zhang became known as the Marquis Zhang Analects, and is the version known today. A later version of the Analects written on bamboo strips before 55 BC, was discovered in in Dingzhou Dingxian in Hebei Province, and was published in This version, although fragmentary, may help to shed new light on the textual tradition of critical dialogues in future editions.

Success depended on a thorough knowledge of the Analects. From the time of Confucius, the Analects have strongly influenced the philosophy and ethical values of China and, later, other East Asian countries. A man who was unfamiliar with the Analects was considered uneducated and not morally upright. For nearly two thousand years, the Analects were the foundation of Chinese education. The rigorous imperial examinations, which thousands of young men took each year in the hopes of gaining employment as functionaries in the imperial government, required a thorough knowledge of the Analects and the teachings of Confucius.

The Analects did not cease to be the central part of Chinese education until the creation of the Chinese republic and the reforms of which abolished the imperial examinations. After the Communist takeover, the Analects and Confucianism, fell into disfavour with the government, but its teachings are so ingrained in Chinese society that they continue to shape the morality and thought of millions of Chinese.

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The Analects of Confucius

First translated during the summer of In the Analects, Confucius imbues the term with a special meaning. The character of the noble man, in contrast to the sage, is being taught as a tangible model for all in the here and now. Thus, the categorization is not so rigid. Those who do not enjoy offending superiors are never troublemakers.

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The Analects Quotes

Information about the Analects of Confucius. This article is about the Analects The Analects of Confucius The Analects are a collection of the teachings and thoughts of Confucius; they also contain fragments of dialogues between the great Chinese philosopher and his disciples. The name in English derived from the word "analect" which means a fragment or extract of literature, or a collection of teachings. In Chinese, the book is literally called "discussion on the words [of Confucius].

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