Shelves: , history I get why Zionism happened. As someone who is both 2nd and 3rd generation, this country is my home, although I have had a status of partial outsider for most of my time here. There is nowhere else to go, but because of how I look, most of the older generation at least will always see me as not quite belonging. So yeah, the desire for having a place of their own led Jews who were historically home-but-outsiders to want the same thing. Yet disgustingly, anything you can imagine saying about I get why Zionism happened.
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One of the principal divisions is that between secular Jews and religious Jews. The reasons for secular opposition to the Zionist movement are very different from those of religious Jews. Opposition to a Jewish state has changed over time and has taken on a diverse spectrum of religious, ethical and political positions.
The legitimacy of anti-Zionist views has been disputed to the present day, including the more recent and disputed relationship between anti-Zionism and antisemitism. The Bundists , the Autonomists , Reform Judaism and the Agude regarded both the rationale and territorial ambitions of Zionism as flawed. Orthodox Judaism , which grounds civic responsibilities and patriotic feelings in religion, was strongly opposed to Zionism because, though the two shared the same values, Zionism espoused nationalism in secular fashion, and used "Zion", "Jerusalem", "Land of Israel", "redemption" and "ingathering of exiles" as literal rather than sacred terms, endeavouring to achieve them in this world.
Aliyah , the Hebrew word meaning "ascending" or "going up", is the word used to describe religious Jewish return to Israel, and has been used since ancient times.
From the Middle Ages and onwards, many famous rabbis and often their followers returned to the land of Israel. For Jews in the Diaspora Eretz Israel was revered in a religious sense. They prayed, and thought of the return, as being fulfilled in a messianic age. Later, Zionism re-kindled the concept of aliyah in an ideological and political sense, parallel with traditional religious belief; it was used to increase Jewish population in the Holy Land by immigration and it remains a basic tenet of Zionist ideology.
Support for aliyah does not always equal immigration however, as a majority of the world Jewish population remains within the Diaspora. Support for the modern Zionist movement is not universal and, as a result, some religious Jews as well as some secular Jews do not support Zionism. Non-Zionist Jews are not necessarily anti-Zionists, although some are. Generally however, Zionism does have the support of the majority of the Jewish religious organizations, with support from segments of the Orthodox movement, and most of the Conservative , and more recently, the Reform movement.
In Israel , there are several Jewish anti-Zionist organisations and politicians; many of these are related to Matzpen. In May , before the full revelation of the Holocaust , the Biltmore Program proclaimed a fundamental departure from traditional Zionist policy of a "homeland"  with its demand "that Palestine be established as a Jewish Commonwealth". Post-Zionism , a related term, has been criticized as being equivalent to anti-Zionism.
The World Agudath Israel party founded in Poland has at times participated in Israeli government coalitions. Most religious Zionists hold pro-Israel views from a right-wing viewpoint. The main exceptions are Hasidic groups such as Satmar Hasidim, which have about , adherents worldwide, as well as numerous different, smaller Hasidic groups, unified in America in the Central Rabbinical Congress of the United States and Canada and in Israel in the Edah HaChareidis.
Rosenfeld in his much discussed essay, Progressive Jewish Thought and the New Anti-Semitism ,  claims that a "number of Jews, through their speaking and writing, are feeding a rise in virulent antisemitism by questioning whether Israel should even exist".
That some do so in the name of Judaism itself makes the nature of their assault all the more grotesque. These charges are not true and can have the effect of delegitimizing Israel.
Many oppose it as a form of nationalism, which they argue to be a product of capitalist societies. One secular anti-Zionist group today is the International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network , a socialist, anti-war, and anti-imperialist organization that calls for "the dismantling of Israeli apartheid, the return of Palestinian refugees, and the ending of the Israeli colonization of historic Palestine".
I will swallow you peacefully It helped shape Palestinian identity and nationalism and was shut down several times by the Ottoman and British authorities, most of the time due to complaints made by Zionists. In this narrative, the natural means of combating Zionism is Arab nations uniting and attacking Israel militarily. Most Arab citizens of Israel do not have strong anti-Zionist views. Israeli Arab support for a constitution in general was 88 percent.
Islamic maps of the Middle East frequently do not show the State of Israel. In an interview with Time Magazine in December , Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said "Everyone knows that the Zionist regime is a tool in the hands of the United States and British governments.
The true Israel today is neither Jews nor Israelis, but believers in the Messiah, even if they are Gentiles John Stott  Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization In January , the Lausanne movement , published an article in its official journal made comparisons between Christian Zionism , the crusades and the Spanish Inquisition and described Zionism as "apartheid on steroids".
The report further denied the "belief among some Jewish people that they have a right to the land of Israel as a compensation for the suffering of the Holocaust" and argued "it is a misuse of the Bible to use it as a topographic guide to settle contemporary conflicts over land. The picture it paints of both Judaism and Israel is barely even a caricature. Many in both communities will be deeply disturbed. See also: Nation of Islam and antisemitism and Zionist Occupation Government Anti-Zionism has a long history of being supported by various individuals and groups associated with Third Position , right-wing and fascist or "neo-fascist" political views.
Soviet ideologues relied for inspiration on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion , on the ideas of classic religious anti-Semitism , and even Mein Kampf , but adopted them to the Marxist framework by substituting the idea of a global anti-Soviet Zionist conspiracy for a specifically Jewish one.
Jewish power became Zionist power. The rich and conniving Jewish bankers controlling money, politicians, and the media became the rich and conniving Zionists. The Jew as the anti-Christ became the Jew as the anti-Soviet. Instead of the Jew as the devil, they presented the Zionist as a Nazi.
This culminated in the passing by the United Nations General Assembly of Resolution in November , which declared "Zionism is a form of racism. Thirteen out of the 19 Arab countries, including those engaged in negotiations with Israel, voted against the repeal, another six were absent. No Arab country voted for repeal. The Palestine Liberation Organisation denounced the vote. All of the ex-communist countries and most of the African countries who had supported Resolution voted to repeal it.
Blacks often perceive the Jewish defense of the state of Israel as a second instance of naked group interest, and, again, an abandonment of substantive moral deliberation. Some blacks view Israel as essentially a white and European power, supported from the outside, and occupying space that rightfully belongs to the original inhabitants of Palestine.
View that the two are interlinked A number of sources link anti-Zionism with antisemitism. Taylan Can, a German citizen of Turkish origin, yelled "death and hate to Zionists" at an anti-Israel rally in Essen in July , and was convicted for hate crime.
Marcus , former staff director at the U. Commission on Civil Rights , identifies four main views on the relationship between anti-Zionism and antisemitism, at least in North America:  p.
Anti-Zionism is Or, to quote noted human rights lawyer David Matas : One form of antisemitism denies access of Jews to goods and services because they are Jewish. Another form of antisemitism denies the right of the Jewish people to exist as a people because they are Jewish.
Antizionists distinguish between the two, claiming the first is antisemitism, but the second is not. To the antizionist, the Jew can exist as an individual as long as Jews do not exist as a people. Martin Luther King , an American civil rights activist. King responded to the student, "When people criticize Zionists, they mean Jews. He cites the example of the "anti-Zionist" professor at Oberlin who posted antisemitic conspiracy theories on her website and the "anti-Zionist" Stanford University student who claimed that many of the classical antisemitic conspiracy theories are not antisemitic.
Pulitzer Prize-winning New York Times op-ed columnist Bret Stephens wrote that anti-Zionists "excel in making excuses for the wicked and finding fault with the good.
Today, anti-Zionism is a call for the elimination of a state — details to follow regarding the fate befalling those who currently live in it" emphasis in the original. But the striking feature of anti-Zionist rhetoric is how broadly it overlaps with traditionally anti-Semitic tropes. The sociologist Steven M. Cohen finds little correlation between antisemitism and anti-Zionism, while Todd Gitlin stated that anti-Semitism and right-wing Zionism can coexist without difficulty.
Brian Klug argued, "We should unite in rejecting racism in all its forms: the Islamophobia that demonises Muslims, as well as the anti-semitic discourse that can infect anti-Zionism and poison the political debate. Equating anti-Zionism with anti-semitism can also, in its own way, poison the political debate. Neil J.
Kressel asserts that for many years the line between antisemitism and anti-Zionism has been blurry. This led them to emphasize this figure [six million] in order to gain the solidarity of international public opinion with Zionism. Many scholars have debated the figure of six million and reached stunning conclusions—fixing the number of Jewish victims at only a few hundred thousand. He notes, for instance, that a Soviet work titled International Zionism: History and Politics contains the allegation that most major Wall Street financial institutions are "large financial-industrial Jewish monopolies" exercising control over many countries in the world.
Article 32 alleges that the Zionist movement seeks to create an Empire stretching from the Nile in Egypt to the Euphrates river in Iraq. Over years ago, they formulated a plan to rule the world, and they are implementing this plan. One of the protocols says: "Keep the [non-Jews] preoccupied with songs, soccer, and movies.
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A history of Zionism
Add to Cart About A History of Zionism The definitive general history of the Zionist movement, by one of the most distinguished historians of our time. Walter Laqueur traces Zionism from its beginnings—with the emancipation of European Jewry from the ghettos in the wake of the French Revolution—to , when the Zionist dream became a reality. Laqueur outlines the differences between the various Zionist philosophies of the early twentieth century—socialist, Communist, revisionist, and cultural utopian—and he discusses both the religious and secular Jewish critics of the movement. He concluded with a dramatic account of the cataclysmic events of World War II, the clandestine immigration of Holocaust survivors, the tragic missed opportunities co-existence with both the Arab residents of Palestine and those in the surrounding countries, and the struggle to forge a new state on an ancient land. About A History of Zionism From one of the most distinguished historians of our time comes the definitive general history of the Zionist movement. He is professor of history and an expert commentator on international affairs.
ISBN 13: 9780297994121