Heka is also described as the ba the soul or manifestation of the sun god. He was the energy which made creation possible and every act of magic was a continuation of the creative process. Some Egyptian deities were merely personifications of abstract concepts or natural phenomena and were never the focus of cult worship or private devotion. No major temples were built for Heka, but he did have a priesthood and shrines were dedicated to him in Lower northern Egypt. Originally this was just an epithet, applied to a number of goddesses. As a goddess in her own right, Weret Hekau was usually shown in cobra form.
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Bibliography Motivation Parapsychology prompts philosophy to reconsider the importance of magic and the magical.
Serious attention to the evidence should be convincing to all except those who are irreversibly committed to the worldview of materialism and sensationalism, according to which ESP and PK are impossible in principle. Instead of focusing on the objective like a physical theory allowing for these unexplainable events - cf.
The latter are necessary, for the magician wants to direct the process of the physical world. Introduction In this paper, I try to understand how Ancient Egyptian thought arrived at its proto-rational stage. Such an understanding can not deny that magical features prevailed in the earliest stage of their cognitive growth pre-logical or mythical thought.
However, in Ancient Egypt, magic is particularly "mental" and it continued to play a dominant role in the next stages of cognitive development. As magical rituals and techniques as such are of no interest here, I will not present a comprehensive list of magical activities as has been done by others.
Instead, I will try to focus on the "mental" core of Egyptian magic itself. Both goals were related, for if one had been unjust on earth, no deification could be expected and total annihilation would ensue to the name of the justified deceased, the epithet "just of voice" was added, i. To realize these goals, the Egyptians placed their trust in the power of speech, or the ability to create by uttering the proper words creative utterance or "hu" insightfully conceived beforehand in the mind "ab" or heart.
In the Memphis Theology , this power of creation through the word is cosmogonic and associated with Ptah, but we find the independent concept as early as the Pyramid Texts. In fact, without "words of power", there would be no Egyptian magic, rituals or ceremonialism.
The magical actions were important, but absolutely impotent without the words necessary to empower them. Moreover, to assume the form of the deities needed, precise recitation was deemed necessary. Hence, Egyptian magic makes ample use of the auditive faculty hearing the words of justice and -if silence is not indicated- speaking the words of power. Besides uttering these words of power, the auditive was also stimulated and underscored by using analogical languages like body language, music and art to give magical rituals their full suggestive effectiveness.
Compare this with the effects of strong suggestions during a deep state of hypnosis, but then on a collective scale. Direct suggestion of this kind is like the empowering effect some charismatic leaders have on crowds. In Ancient Egypt, Pharaoh and his Residence provided for the continuous presence of a power said to have derived from "the gods" Pharaoh as son of Re.
In the Old Kingdom, he alone was the real center of the divine on earth, for the spirits and souls of the deities existed in the sky. The priests brought into trance through the ongoing litanies? The priests identified themselves as much as possible with the pantheon. The initiatic as well as the funerary rituals make use of this magical technique called "the assumption of godforms", i. Ergo, it is possible to view the Egyptian deities as forms or symbolizations of natural processes leading to a complex syncretism in harmony with the fundamental unity of the "first time" in which all the deities were and continuously are re created, re generated and re juvenated.
The epistemic status of these godforms are not rational but proto-rational. They are the archetypes of the collective unconscious of the Ancient Egyptian, i. They realized that in sleep and dreams, one experiences these depths as a psychic reality in which one may encounter gods and the deceased alike. In order to understand proto-rationality, we need an objective standard to measure these stages of cognitive growth. In my Naar een Stuurkundige Antropologie I already developed an eclectical model on cognitive development.
It was based on the work of Piaget, Kohlberg, the neo-Freudian school and Maslow. See also : Criticosynthesis , Once the role of magic in the proto-rationality of the Ancient Egyptians has been understood, it may be possible to contrast this knowledge with Greek philosophy, especially with the thought of those Greeks who visited Egypt and studied there.
It may become clear then, that many of the themes developed by Greek philosophy did not arise "ex nihilo". In a later stage, these comparisons will be helpful to clarify the relationships resemblances and differences between Ancient Egyptian civilization and the Semitical cultures of the Jews and the Arabs, both influenced by Ancient Greece. This chapter provides information enabling one to understand "ante-rationality", so that "instinct" may be distinguished from "intuition".
I argue for an integrated rationality able to make use of these barriers when necessary. In his Le Structuralisme, Piaget defines his pivotal notion of "structure" as a system of transformations which abides by certain laws and which sustains or enriches itself by a play of these transformations, which occur without the use of external factors. This auto-structuration of a complete whole is defined as "auto-regulation".
These can be theoretically formalized. Piaget never fills in what reality is. He maintains no ontological view on reality-as-such, considered to be the borderline of both the developing subject and its objective world, stage after stage.
The cognitive is approached as a process, for rationality grows in developmental stages, each calling for a particular cognitive structure on the side of the subject. What reality is, is left open. Every objective observation implies an observer bound by the limitations of a given stage of cognitive development, i. Neither did Piaget choose for a strictly transcendental approach. Conditions which exist before cognition itself like in Foucault are not introduced.
Living substances begin their existence with action. This is rooted in biological processes. Action implies the formation of cognitive structures which -at first- are exteriorized in coordinated external movements.
After repeated actions, interiorization, permanency, invariant principles and imagination allow for the emergence of internal cognitive structures. These internal cognitive structures are constantly being transformed and regulated in order to adapt the system to new situations.
This process is recurrent and so always more complex cognitive structure emerge. Ergo, the continuous emancipation of the different cognitive forms of equilibrium an always increasing cognition is the pivotal notion cf. The Development of Thought, This increase is the natural result of successfull re-equilibrations, in which logico-symbolical functions plays a major role.
Auto-regulation is also the result of the interactions between the system and its environment. Hence, intersubjectivity is always essential in the construction of new and stronger cognitive structures. This implies that cognitive processes not only appear as resulting from organical auto-regulation of which they reflect the essential mechanisms but also emerge as differentiated organs of this regulation in the arena of interactions with the environment. Cognition is the most differentiated biological organ of survival human beings have.
Piagetian psychogenesis based on the observation of children shows that knowledge implies a developing relationship between a thinking subject and the objects around it. This relationship grows and becomes more complex. Stages of cognitive development can be defined by means of their typical cognitive events and acquired mental forms.
This development is not a priori pre-conditions , a posteriori empirical but constructivistic : the system is always adapting and creating new cognitive structures, causing novel behavior which may be interiorized and form new internal cognitive forms, etc. The foundation of this process is action itself, the fact that its movements are not random but coordinated. It is the form of this coordination, the order, logic or symbolization of the pattern of the movements which eventually may stabilize as a permanent mental operator.
Organisms tend toward equilibrium with the environment. Mental operators are the result of the interiorization of this cognitive evolution. An original, archaic sense of identity is shaped.
After prolonged exposure to new types of action -challenging the established original centration and its equilibrium- a crisis ensues and decentration is the outcome. A higher-order equilibrium is found through auto-regulation re-equilibration.
In this way, several strands, levels, layers or planes of cognitive texture unfold. This part of the model is "vertical", in the sense that it explains how cognitive structures stand erect. Complementary to this is the approach of Prigogine, who investigated the horizontal, dynamical features, found to be irreversible cf.
These findings can be expanded in three ways. Secondly, the stages encountered in the cognitive growth of individuals correspond with the development of cognition in the human species as a whole from mythical to rational thought and beyond - cf. Jaynes, Thirdly, stages beyond the formal stage of cognitive growth can and will not be a priori excluded.
Its main principles are : thought originates from action, i. This coordination is a "form" which is : a executed by the biological organism at hand, i. In his famous book, La Nouvelle Alliance, Prigogine poses the question how highly intelligent systems escape the constant chaotic movements which surrounds them?
Indeed, Piaget psychology focused on the forms of equilibrium which characterize the relative stability of a given stage of cognitive development. These forms represent order, structure or architecture stability, conservation, repetition.
The fact that crisis decentration is necessary to trigger re-equilibration, as well as the observation that crisis is initiated by interacting with the environment, were put into evidence by Piaget and are confirmed by the analysis of complex trajectories by Prigogine cf.
Both positions are complementary, and focus on a different functional horizon of complex systems. Prigogine studies the horizontal, dynamical characteristics of a system, the fact that they constantly reorganize to survive the entropic decay around them.
Both acknowledge that systems go through crisis and define auto-regulation Piaget and auto-structuration Prigogine as explicative for the continuous reorganization permanent reformation to which highly intelligent systems submit themselves, especially when the number of interaction with the environment is large increasing the arrival of new input.
Because fluctuations rise, more interactions increase the chance of crisis and trigger crisis decentration. Only crisis will increase the survival-needs of a system and trigger auto-structuration which can be measured as : a decrease of entropy or negative entropy i.
Complex life is a refutation of the "black box"-model, the "closed systems"-theories and the "stimulus-reflex"-thinking ; a more comprehensive database which allows for more information to be stored, assimilated and made to work to solve problems ; a more coherent field of consciousness, able to attribute meaning to the objects which are part of it.
A swift communication indeed increases fluctuations, but the latter do not destroy the system because a critical balance has been realized. Hence, auto-regulation through the dynamics of conflict, implies both external environment and internal power of integration changes. The latter, vertical aspect of a system, defies entropy as long as it can and this with an exemplary tenacity.
But if no power of integration is operative or if it is not strong enough compared with the fluctuations at hand, then an increase of chaos is the most likely outcome.
This reduces the existing heterogeneity and variety to a more standardized and uniform format. It makes the system withdraw and collapse. For this reduced system avoids communication and hence fossilizes out of the lack of new input and the absence of auto-regulation. When investigating ancient cultures in general and Egyptian civilization in particular, the first three layers of cognitive growth are essential.
Heka: God of Magic & Medicine
In the event of the ancient Egyptian culture, it had been regarded as a way to communicate with the gods, request good luck, as well as a way to interact with the spiritual world. Heka, the magic of ancient Egyptians, has been among the most mysterious and interesting magical practices in the world. The rituals normally took place in monumental temples with no audience. However, artifacts of everyday life indicate that regular individuals also practiced their very own style of magic, which they thought brought them nearer to the gods and personal desires. Magical amulets that were made in those times remained in use until roughly the 5th century AD, and have been restored in modern times.
Ancient Egyptian Magic of Heka
In ancient Egypt, magic was a very important aspect in society, Ancient Egyptians believed that magic comes from power or strength which is present in the universe. So, they personified magic. Thus, this personification is the god Heka. There is mythology about the god of magic. According to this, Heka existed from the time of creation. He empowered the event of creation.
Introduction to Heka
Select Page Introduction to Heka The magical word of Heka could mean several meanings to many people. Each of these meanings also signifies many faces of complex Egyptian magic and the occult. Heka seems to be the divine gift of the sun god Re in an honor to the humankind. The earliest meaning of heka dates back to almost years; the basic functions of heka is detailed in the text called the Instruction for Merikara, the Middle Kingdom teaching and treatise of the Pharaoh Amenemhet I BCE. He describes heka as: He Re provided them the heka as a great weapon in order to protect people from the dangerous effects of evil spirits. Fact: Heka is the great creative force or life supporting energy that connects the subjects, resources and other symbols of life with the almighty universe, which a magician must attempt to learn in order to work magic in an effective way. Heka, the Inherent Energy When you look into living beings, heka is the inherent energy that is both aural and magical in nature.
What is Heka?