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Published23 Oct Abstract Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii Stapf Diels leaves are widely used in the treatment of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular related complications in Nigeria. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effect of aqueous extract of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii leaves in high-fat diet- HFD- induced obese rats. Moreover, HFD-mediated elevation in the levels of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and DNA fragmentation in rats liver was lowered.
HFD-mediated alterations in serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reversed by the extract.
This study showed that aqueous extract of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii leaves has potential antiobesity and anti-inflammatory effects through modulation of obesity-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and obesity-related disorder in HFD-induced obese rats.
Introduction Obesity, excessive visceral accumulation and distribution, is a risk factor in atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes type 2 , dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome [ 1 ]. Indeed, its rising prevalence which continues to be a global challenge is associated with high-fat, caloric-dense diets, sedentary life styles, increased urbanization, and psychosocial stress McLaren, Adiposity in high-fat consumption has been demonstrated in epidemiological and experimental studies [ 2 , 3 ] and is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress of adipocyte, and necrosis-like cell death [ 4 ].
Drugs including phentermine, fluoxetine, orlistat, sibutramine, and rimonabant are used for the treatment of obesity. However, associated side effects are not limited to nausea, dizziness, insomnia, diarrhea, dyspepsia, and constipation. Thus, there are growing demands for plant derived foods and compounds to manage and treat ailments such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes [ 6 ].
Indeed, antidiabetic activity and capability of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii leaves have been validated [ 7 , 8 ]. In furtherance of these, the therapeutic importance of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii leaves in obesity and associated complications was investigated.
Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, a tropical rainforest vine, family Menispermaceae, is known as serendipity berry, Omu-aja Yoruba, and Okazi Igbo [ 9 ]. Monellin, a content of the fruit, is times sweeter than sugar [ 10 ].
Alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatannins, saponins, and tannins are reported phytochemicals in Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii leaves [ 11 ]. Leaves of this plant are used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, and uterine haemorrhages [ 11 ]. Recently, we reported in different models that magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine, and columbamine are responsible for the antidiabetic and protective importance in metabolic syndrome model [ 7 , 8 ].
As diabetes and metabolic syndrome could result from obesity, we evaluated the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii on HFD-induced dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress.
Materials and Methods 2. Rats, kept in clean plastic cages, were placed in well-ventilated house conditions and supplied with feed Capefeed Ltd. Chemical Reagents and Assay Kits Disodium salt, hexahydrate and guanidine hydrochloride, ultrapure water, 5,5-dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid DNTB , and trichloroacetic acid were purchased from Research Organics, East 49th Street, Cleveland, Ohio ; superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucosephosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol assay kits were purchased from Randox Laboratories Co.
Adiponectin, insulin, and leptin enzyme immunoassay kits were products of Sigma-Aldrich Inc. Louis, USA. All other reagents used were products of Sigma-Aldrich Inc.
Preparation of Plant Extract Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii leaves were washed clean with distilled water, air-dried, and pulverized using domestic blender. Pulverized leaves g were extracted in distilled water 1 L for 48 h, filtered, and concentrated on water bath.
The extract yield We reported magnoflorine 1. The extract was refrigerated all through the experimental period to avoid microbial contamination and maintain its composition. Feed Composition and Formulation HFD with composition presented in Table 1 was used for the study and formulated as described by Ajiboye et al.
Monellin chain B
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